Michael J. Swart

February 23, 2011

How Full is Fill Factor 100?

Filed under: SQLServerPedia Syndication,Technical Articles — Tags: , , , , — Michael J. Swart @ 12:00 pm


Question: For a clustered index on an identity column, is it okay to set the fill factor to 100?
Answer: Most likely, it depends on a lot of things.

Fill Factor

So today I’m talking about the FILL FACTOR setting that can be applied to indexes. Remember, Fill Factor is a percentage you can specify so that when indexes are built (or rebuilt) SQL Server leaves some free space in each data page to accommodate any new data that may come along.
A man at a restaurant saves room for dessert.
If more data is added to a page which doesn’t have enough room to accommodate it, then a page split occurs – a new page is created elsewhere and roughly half the rows get written to the new page. This leaves two pages roughly half full. So the goal of setting a Fill Factor properly is to prevent these page splits (because too many page splits impacts performance).

Fill Factor of 100 on Clustered Indexes on Identity Columns

So there’s a couple places I’ve found that recommend a fill factor of 100 on indexes that begin with identity columns.

  • Dave Levy describes a process that includes the tip: “If the index is on an ever increasing value, like an identity column, then the fill factor is automatically 100.”
  • Pinal Dave gives the same advice: “If the index key column is an IDENTITY column, the key for new rows is always increasing and the index rows are logically added to the end of the index. In such a situation, you should set your FILLFACTOR to 100.”

This makes sense, if you always add rows to the end of an index, then you don’t need to save room in the middle do you? Ahh… But what about UPDATE statements? UPDATE statements can add data into the middle of an index (especially a clustered index which includes all fields). You might think that even updating a record so that it’s one byte larger than it used to be will cause a page split.

Fill Factor of 100 Still Has A Bit Of Wiggle Room

It turns out that there’s still a little bit of wiggle room. It’s very rare for pages to have zero bytes free. Even if the index was built (rebuilt) with Fill Factor 100. The reason is because data pages contain an whole number of records. If there’s space on a page, but not quite enough space for a whole record, then it’s considered full. This tiny space could in theory be used for updates that fit.

What Else to Consider

So one extra byte is rarely going to cause a page split. I would be comfortable recommending a Fill Factor of 100 for any index on an identity column. But before you trust me, there are some other things to consider:

  • The bit of wiggle room I mentioned above
  • Know your application! Most OLTP systems do far more Inserts than Updates. (Most OLAP systems do zero updates)
  • How many fields in the index are variable length? And how many of those get updated? Remember only variable length fields can change the size of a record. No variable length fields means an automatic Fill Factor 100.
  • SQL Server only pays attention to Fill Factor on Index Rebuilds (or on creation). It doesn’t maintain the fill factor space any other time. So ask yourself how often updates are applied to rows that are older than your last index rebuild. If it’s rare, then Fill Factor 100.
  • How’s your re-indexing strategy? If you REORGANIZE your indexes instead of REBUILD, the fill factor won’t make a difference at all (If so, better to stop reading this article and work on a comprehensive index maintenance strategy.)
  • Page splits don’t impact performance of seeks (just scans).
  • Page splits aren’t the end of the world. In terms of database health. Fragmentation is like a bad cold.

There’s probably even more things I’m missing. But you know what’s better than guessing? Measuring! Go use Dave Levy’s Fill Factor script to know exactly how Fill Factor is impacting your indexes.

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